Archive for the ‘other classic boats’ Category

New marine fuel winter storage product

marine fuel stabilzer sta bil 360 winter storage boat

Sta Bil 360 Marine

 

Sta Bil 360 Marine adds new protection to your boat and its engine(s) for 2014. In many parts of the country, boaters have an off-season period. This can last four to 8 months depending on your home port. All you boaters that slip their boats in Key West, well Seabuddy is not talking about your boating fuel habits in a direct way in this write-up.

For the rest of us gas engine seasonal boat owners, let me suggest a few pointers.

Warning, I am not a chemist, I am simply passing on personal experiences and some advertising messaging put out by major players within the marine trades.

Put your boat away with the gas fuel tank 95% full.

At the beginning of your last fill up, pour in 1 oz. of Sta Bil 360 Marine for every 5 gallons of gas you intend to put in your boat.

Think about buying your Sta Bil 360 either at your nearest convenient marine store or at a low price shop. Google search “Sta Bil 360” at Walmart and Amazon.com. Watch your final costs including shipping and sales tax. Use half as much at every fill-up during the season.

Here is a quote from the fuel stabilizer maker “STA-BIL 360 MARINE offers comprehensive protection by releasing a microscopic corrosion preventing vapor inside the fuel system that coats ALL metals parts, including the fuel tank, fuel sending unit, valves, carburetor, fuel injectors and intake manifold. It’s like fogging oil for your entire fuel system, offering “360 degrees” of corrosion protection and is safe to use in all types of gasoline – from ethanol-free fuel to E85.

STA-BIL 360 MARINE accomplishes everything our current STA-BIL products offer, including keeping fuel fresh, removing water, cleaning the fuel system and more, but this revolutionary new product provides an exciting new level of protection for ultimate performance. For the first time, STA-BIL 360 MARINE delivers corrosion protection above and below the fuel line by releasing an innovative vapor that coats all metal parts within the fuel system to prevent corrosion.

Once poured into a tank of fuel, STA-BIL 360 MARINE will provide a vaporized corrosion inhibitor coating for up to 12 months in a stored boat or equipment.”

This product is new for 2014 and it won the International Boatbuilder’s Exhibition & Conference (IBEX) Innovation Award in the Boat Care and Maintenance category.

IBEX is organized by the National Marine Manufacturers Association (NMMA) and judged by members of Boating Writers International (BWI), the award recognizes innovative distinction from other products currently being manufactured, benefit to the marine industry and consumers, practicality and cost-effectiveness.

Restored Race Boat. Wood deck fiberglass classic flat bottom w/ Casale V-Drive and Side Oiler 427 Ford engine

wood deck fiberglass classic race boat 1961 flat bottom marine runabout

Wood deck classic fiberglass Hallett race boat

This is a 1961 Hallett race boat owned by racer/businessman Nick Barron, and he led its restoration. Others that had a hand in its restoration were Ray Day, Paul Richer, Ernie Casale, Harry Metzer, Harlan Orrin, Ken Meyers, and Hallett Boats.

restored classic race boat cockpit dash steering wheel gas pedal driver cavitation plate control

Note the cavitaion plate (racer trim tab) control handle

 

She is a pure race boat with the additional aspects of high speed marathon water ski racing that is in Halett’s history built into it. This is a beautiful, historic boat from the Southern California racing archives. This boat rig is complete with a special “float-on” style (no bow eye winch and cable) Competitive brand boat trailer.

restored race boat hallett flat bottom flattie vee drive ford side oiler marine

No winch and cable for this custom trailer

The boat’s rare Ford Side-Oiler 427 cubic inch engine was refreshed with its 536 horsepower power connected to the boat’s propeller via a 15% overdrive ( the prop spins 15% faster than the engine’s rpm) Split Case V-drive. Ray Day did the engine and Harry Orrin did the underwater hardware part including the Finish Line cavitation plate and hardware (racer trim tabs). Seating, steering, and other boat hardware details were done by Hallett Boats.

Casale Vee-Drtive strut prop shaft hardware installation

Casale split case vee drive runs the prop 15% faster than the engine

Harry Orrin did the beautiful wood deck on this Hallett racer. Its and the boat’s finish was done by Ken Meyers. Please note the blue pin line he did on the hull in my photos. It really sets the color and design choices off.

restored fiberglass hallett race boat pin line stripe marine runabout

Note the Blue Pin stripe line

Baron Boats built fiberglass versions of Hallett Boats. Rich Hallett was a master wood boat maker/builder and he first arranged for Nick Barron to do this in exchange for a “free” fiberglass hull for so many Hallett designs Baron Boats made (it is rumored that it was one “free” fiberglass hull for every seven boats built).

ford side oiler 427 marine engine race boat runabout

Side Oiler Ford marine race engine makes 536 horsepower

That made sense as Nick served a far bigger customer base. He made up to 500 boats per year since starting his business in 1957. Now sales for custom specification Halletts are in the two to three dozen per model year.

cavitation plate restored race boat fiberglass

Racer trim tabs

 

A few years into the royalty agreement, Nick bought the name Hallett from the Hallett family. While for a short time, all Baron Boats made to Hallett designs recognized that with a plaque that said “Hallett by Barron Boat Works” – or words to that effect. That wording and the distinction was dropped. For most of the time, however, Nick Barron was the owner/mover/shaker behind what is called Hallett Boats. Seabuddy has met Nick a few times, often with his buddy master engine builder Paul Pfatt at southern California events. I think of him as a nice guy.

wood deck fiberglass restored race boat runabout

Cockpit view

By the way, Pfatt Racing Engines is getting good sales and durability in the field with their 850 horsepower 429 cubic inch displacement GM LS3 with its new supercharging set-up. The redline for that 4.125 inch stroke motor from Pfatt is 6,700 RPM.

Center Console, Ferrari, and North Carolina

Ferrari GTB Nart spider

the $25,000,000 Ferrari going across the auction block

The father of a top shelf 2014 model year Center Console boat builder had a Ferrari as his one luxury in life. Mr. Smith Sr.’s first Ferrari was a used 250 GT SWB California Spider, which he bought from Luigi Chinetti in Greenwich, CT. His first new Ferrari was a 275 GTB / 4 Berlinetta. He picked that Ferrari up at the Ferrari factory in Maranello, Italy, although he bought it in the U S. via Luigi Chinetti, the U S Ferrari Importer.

Soon after Mr. Smith Sr.’ s new car purchase, Chinetti then asked Enzo Ferrari to build him some Spiders (convertibles) closely based on that same model. Those Chinetti inspired and ordered Ferraris were named world-wide as the Ferrari 275 GTB/4NART Spider. The original order talked about was for 25 cars but only 10 were made in the initial (and as it turned out only) production run.

To promote his new Ferrari model, Chinetti had one of these NART (North American Racing Team) Spiders raced by the driver team of Denise McCluggage and Pinkie Rollo at Sebring. They drove the car to a 17th overall finish.  This all-female driving crew added to the notoriety of the NART Ferrari effort.

Their racer was then repainted and loaned to Steve McQueen for his movie, The Thomas Crown Affair. After the movie, McQueen bought one of these NART Ferraris for himself. Other car owners included Stroll, Beecham, and Moores, (who bought two). Even with this marketing effort, Luigi Chinetti had trouble selling his first 10 cars. Thus there was no re-order for more cars.

Why?

First, the Ferrari 275 GTB/4 NART Spider was priced by Chinetti at $14,400, while he sold the Berlinetta version of the same car for $8000. The Berlinetta was sold by Ferrari dealers world-wide and Ferrari factory set that price. Chinetti, however, set the price for the GTB/4 NART Spider. He had it exclusively; one could not buy it from any other dealer.

Second. While this car was more a street cruiser Ferrari and not a racer Ferrari, her engine was specially tuned for performance, even more so than the 275 GTB/4 Coupe (Berlinetta). For instance, the six carbs on the 12 cylinder car tended to load up at lower RPM. Owners/ drivers had to “regularly clear them out” via high rpm acceleration runs. Then, the profiles of the four cams delivered power best from 5,500 RPMs and on up to the red-line of 8,000 RPMS. This is not the best RPM range for a daily driver sports car.

The earlier model NART entry that Seabuddy saw Pedro Rodriguez win with at Bridgehampton in 1962 did about the same thing. About half way through that race his car lost its crisp level of tuning. First, it only showed up as he decelerated, and then, late in the race, it did it pretty much at all times. He did beat the fast Birdcage Maserati in that race, though.

Why am I writing about this car now? OK, here is the headline for why now. The $14,400 Ferrari was sold for $25,000,000 when Smith Senior died. All of that $25,000,000 was donated to charity by the heirs of Eddie Smith, Sr. It was sold for a total of $27,500,000 with the auction fees added to the hammer price.

Eddie Smith Jr. and all his brothers and sisters wanted the car to go a good home and the money from its sale to help charity.

So, how is this a boat story? Fair question to ask, folks. Eddie Smith, Jr., the son of the Ferrari owner is known in boating circles as the owner of Grady White boats in North Carolina. Grady is one of the storied center console boat brands in the world. Eddie made his company, himself, with his boat building team. Dad was not a boat builder, nor was Dad even in the same town. Eddie is a self-made man.

Grady White is an award-winning brand of fish boat. A successful fiberglass boat builder today; Smith started out making wooden boats, years ago. For a write-up on a wooden Grady White boat, see…  http://seabuddyonboats.com/boats/best-of-show-outboard-%E2%80%93-grady-white-wins-the-award/

 

center console grady white fiberglass boat

Fish ready Grady White Center console fiberglass battle wagon

 

Gar Wood and Chris Craft

Gar Wood started in his winning ways on the water with the purchase of the 1916 successful Gold Cup race boat that was “a broken, battered hulk after the race, fit only for junk” put up for sale by Chris Smith, 53, who was down to seven cents in his pockets after losing in a poker game. Gar paid for the hunk with a $1,000 down payment and a note for $800.

That racer, Miss Detroit, had been built by Chris from a design by Joseph Napoleon “Nap” Lisee, who worked for Chris Smith’s C.C. Smith Boat & Engine Company. Right after buying the boat and engine of Miss Detroit, he went to the Smith factory and brought controlling interest in it. He figured that he could keep others from racing against him via this investment as it came with the talent of Chris Smith, his sons, Jay and Bernard, and “Nap”.

Next he commissioned the building of Miss Detroit II, a new race boat, using the 250 Hp. engine from the original hunk of Miss Detroit. That new boat set a speed record of 61.724 MPH while racing the next year. The first photo shows the 20’ single step 250 Hp. Miss Detroit II with Jay .W. Smith as the riding mechanic.

miss detroit chris craft 1917 record breaking wood race boat

seabuddy's photo of the Mainer's Museum Chris Craft photo

Together, Chris Smith, “Nap”, and Gar Wood won 5 straight Gold Cups from 1917-1921 and 2 Harmsworth trophies in 1920 and 1921.

But by February of 1922, Smith bought out Gar Wood and started a new company, the Chris Smith & Sons Boat Company in a new location. Chris, his sons Jay, Bernard, and Owen each owned 25% of that boat building company and started fresh with a new piece of land and and they built a brand new factory on it. In the deal, Gar Wood got the old C.C. Smith &Engine Company boat building plant. He built his race boats, the 33’ “Baby Gar” runabout that had been developed by “Nap” while still at the old company, high performance cabin cruisers, and the 28’ Baby Gar runabout model.

The 33’ Baby Gar was a outstanding design. It was a good riding, safe runabout that was a triple (3) cockpit boat and it’s bottom used all of the characteristics of the his Miss Americas race boats with the step. Gar Wood sold his boats to Edward Noble, William Randolph Hearst, John Dodge, Col. Vincent and P. K. Wrigley. The Chris Smith and Sons Boat Company sold more wooden boats to a broader range of successful folks.

These boats soon outgrew the boat building production plant. Thus, Gar Wood Boats moved into a new factory in Marysville, MI in 1930. This plant was capable of making 1200 top shelf wooden boats per year. Now 22’, 40’, 28’, 33’ boats were made. Some of these lengths were offered in a variety of model configurations. Later 16’, 18’, 19’, 22.5′, 24’, 32’, and 25’ models were added. Production of boats for Gar Wood peaked just before W.W. II.

Gar Wood, himself, retired to Miami at the age of 60, and the new management of Gar Wood Industries ordered a restyle of the boat line up and engaged Norman Bel Geddes, a noted industrial designer, for a new post war feeling.

post w.w. II bright finished wooden runabout on the chesapeake bay

Show winning 1947 Gar Wood 22.5' wood runabout

With high new design and jig costs, quality wood shortages, hardware out-of-stocks, and a somewhat distant management running the company, the company closed down in 1947. My Seabuddy photos show a restored 1947 Gar Wood 22.5’ wood boat in the brackish waters of the Chesapeake Bay. She is an ACBS award winner down from CT.

Handcrafted Boat Bailer, Holiday Boater’s Gift, about $60

Is there a fine level of finish on the boat in your family? Want a nice gift for a loved one that has a Classic Boat? Here is the perfect boater’s gift for this year.

You know that the boat and the boat owner needs one of these if there is a cut-off bleach bottle bailer in the boat bilge bailer supplies of the boat or in the garage of the runabout’s skipper. This handmade boat bailer works better, is shaped correctly, and it will not damage the fine finish of the treasured boat. Plus, it looks just right! Even if you use something else to move water from the inside of boats to the bays, lakes, rivers, and oceans of your waterways.

These bailers are hand crafted in Connecticut within the USA. The grip is lathe-turned Black Locust wood, with a proper inset and it is shaped for comfort. The wood back plate is made out of cherry wood and it even has some tumblehome in its shape to better fit into bilge corners and tight spaces onboard. Finally, the scoop itself is fashioned out of heavy marine leather. The entire boater’s gift is finished in Oarsman Marine Tallow, pine tar, and beeswax.

This is a fairly new product now available on the market outside of the wooden boat community of the northeast. The boater’s bilge bailer design it is based on, however, is over thirty years old. In fact, that original one is still looking and working well. It is a proven, useful gift for human, sail, and powerboaters. More info here…    http://www.oarsmanmarinetallow.com/  Seabuddy has never met Roger, but we have talked and he comes across as a very nice, practical-minded, warm hearted member of the small boat community.

 

handcrafted boat bilge bailer

new handmade bailer based on 30 year old design

Holiday Gift for Boaters under $100

Got a wooden boat owner in the family and stuck on finding a different but memorable Christmas gift?

 

Fine boat varnish work demands good brushes. And several of those brushes to work all corners and parts of a boat efficiently. Get your wooden boat lover a gift that lasts for a lifetime.

 

A six brush Epifanes Brush Keeper metal box is the correct way and professional way to store valuable varnish brushes. This box holds up to six assorted varnish brushes. I know several friends that would die to get this item as a gift.

 

A good brush lasts for years with proper care. How do you care for a good brush? Clean each brush with mineral spirits, clip their handles into the holding plate and lower the brushes into a bath of diesel or kerosene for long term storage.

varnish brush storage box

holds six brushes

 

Ready to varnish again? Slip the brushes out of the box and thoroughly rinse them with mineral spirits. The brushes are ready for superior varnish work again.

This Brushkeeper box is made from heavy rustproof enamel coated steel. It is welded together for strength. And it lasts. Looks serious and it is.

epifanes brush keeper holiday gift boat christmas

seabuddy photo varnish brush holder epifanes

No one who gets one of these Brush Boxes for their fine varnish work will ever forget this thoughtful gift. It is a special gift. And it is under $100.

epifanes brush keeper box photo

Another view of the Epifanes Brush Keeper Box for Wooden Boaters

 

Short Shaft 50 HP outboards and a sneak peek

Many of the readers of seabuddyonboats know that I love Glasspar G-3 runabouts. These classic speedsters from the early 1960s were a hot boat or go fast boat for him when he was a teen and now again as an older man.

Good news!  Tohatsu has a short shaft 50 Horsepower outboard. It is a two-stroke. Light weight (205 lbs). Ultra-low emission, EPA and CARB approved.

Tohatsu names their intake system for this engine TLDI. TLDI stands for (Two stroke Low pressure Direct Injection). This translates to a smoother operating engine with better fuel, air, and oil mixing. With this improved mixing, one gets big power features in a small, compact package.

Tohatsu power products business can be traced back to 1922. They entered the outboard power marketplace in 1956. They now manufacture about 200,000 engines each year and have continued to expand their company with a 370,000 square foot plant.

tohatsu 50 HP marine outboard motor two stroke

Got this from another country

Now here is the news about short shaft outboards that can power Glasspar G-3 boats. Tohatsu is bringing to market a four stroke 50 horsepower engine for 2014.

Here are the two-stroke specs.

Model / MD50
Engine (No. of Cylinder) 3
Output 50 hp (36.8 kw)
Displacement 697 cc (42.5 cu.in.)
Bore x Stroke 68 x 64 mm (2.68 x 2.52 in)
Starting Electric
Control Type Remote Control or Tiller Handle
Gear Shift Forward – Neutral – Reverse
Gear Ratio 1.85:1
Propeller Selection Range 7″ – 15″
Transom Height 15″, 20″
Fuel Unleaded Gasoline (87 Octane)
Oil Type Premium TCW-3
Fuel Tank Optional
Weight* 205.7 lbs. (93.5 kg)
Alternator Output 12V, 280W, 23A
Max. RPM Range 5,150 – 5,850
Direct Fuel Injection S

Did Don Aronow race Donzi boats?

Yes, and he won three times in Donzi boats. That was in 1965 and in1966. Don had also won the year before, in 1964 in his 27’ Claudia II. However, #seabuddy would not call his win in 1964 in a Bahamas race in his Claudia II boat as a Donzi Marine boat.

 

claudia

May 2, 1967 the first Claudia race boat. Made of wood. Designed by Howard Abbey.

I believe that her wood hull pre-dated the design team that made Formula Boats, as well as the Donzi Brand team that followed Formula Marine in Don’s stream of boat companies. There are photos of Claudia II inside one of Don’s boat factories, but it was in for service, not construction, in my opinion.

Thus, Don raced and won first place three times in Donzi Boats which was in the 1965 -1966 time frame. These wins were in Donzi Marine boats, either named Donzi 007 or Donzi 008. Both were 28’ Donzi Marine boats.

By the way, the Claudia II 27’ boat design was sold to Marlin Boatworks an out of state boat builder, while a 23’ design became the very popular 233 for Formula Marine which he sold to Merrick Lewis and his Thunderbird operation.

Back to the story subject here, we all know that Don Aronow won 1st place in more than 4 races. So, what boat brands did he drive to a 1st place win in all his other races in?

The simple answer is 27’ Magnum and 32’ Cary brand name boats. The confusing issue is the boat names and as they compared to the boat brands registered with the race organizers of his boats. Second, depending on the race, Don Aronow would race his outboard, inboard, or a sterndrive version boat of the same boat name with one, two or three engines. His six Magnums were named/ called Maltese Magnum. He called /named his Carys The Cigarette as he often had a business deal that kept his name off boats companies or out of being registered as the boat builder of record. Hey, racing is fun and busiess should not slow down racing!.

Finally, Don was named World Champion in 1967, 1968, and in 1969. Plus, he won so many races in that 1969 racing year that his name will always be remembered.

 

donzi race boat 008

Donzi Marine race boat. Fiberglass. Race winer in 1966

1928 Racing Hydroplane, Uncle Charlie & me

Ever put a 40 Horsepower 1960 Evinrude Lark on a 1928 Hydroplane that was raced with a 22 horsepower outboard?

For two weeks, it was the fastest thing on the Barnegat Bay. That boat and outboard motor combination beat everything!

race outboard power early 1920s #seabuddy

sister ship to the racer I rode on the deck of

My Uncle Charlie would sucker any one into a race against this pre-war racer by holding back as we came side by side. Once the other boat was convinced that our and their boat was wide open, he would simply roll the engine mounted throttle wide open and took off! We had them by a mile every time. Never lost. Our 40 horsepower outboard  11’racer was the terror of N J.

I was a strapping young teen of 13 years of age this summer of boating fun and he was my bachelor uncle that sucked my dad into paying half for his and mine hobby of boating. We had a 15’ wood Sea Mac runabout, but that water ski boat did not even do 30 MPH. We wanted 60 MPH!

My Dad’s other brother had the 1928 racing two point hydroplane that had been taken on trade for a car repair bill.  That boat had been in the family but had not been in the water since before WW II as the no one could get its racing 22 horsepower outboard motor to start.

And, we had the 40 Horsepower shiny Lark two-stroke that ran!

Charlie came up with the idea of putting the running motor on the smaller boat and us going faster.

The Hydroplane was not water ready, it leaked and had dry rot. So Charlie and I slopped some fiberglass resin over the canvas covered racer’s bottom. It was Charlie’s idea was that the canvas weave would be an effective substitute for fiberglass cloth. We used both cloth and resin on the hull sides as there was no canvas there, just peeling paint

Another problem was it was a single person cockpit boat and there were two of us. So, I was assigned to lay out on the foredeck and simply hold on for the thrill ride that Charlie controlled from the cockpit.

The boat was fast, but way overstressed and far too gone for it to last. Each ride resulted in a stick or framing piece crumbling. We just threw them overboard as they came up. My deck was racing thin and so it collapsed. I then rode on the uprights, similar to a bed of nails, with just the padding of a PFD throw cushion in the worst spot. My body had many bruises, which I hid from my Mom.

period correct 1928 race boat and race engine

#seabuddy next to the sister ship 1928 racing boat & motor

Each night, we had to tie up the motor to the pier, to keep its power head above water. We let the rest of the boat sink nightly, and bailed her out when we went for a challenge race. After two weeks, our speedster was too far gone. The steering was always pulling out from the frames, she leaked very badly, and I was so sore from bouncing on the uprights that I just could not take it anymore.

Seabuddy’s photos are of a sister ship, age correct, but it is a smooth-bottom runabout  style, without the boat bottom step that the hydroplane had.

wood classic race boat outboard johnson powered

the cockpit only fits one person, and not #seabuddy as a teen

 

1928 racing boat with johnson 22 HP outboard motor

#seabuddy saw this sister ship to a teen remenberence

 

1928 racer with Johnson 22 HP outboard engine

I never got to drive the boat, Uncle Charlie did that, #seabuddy just held on for life

Classic Wooden Jersey Speed Skiff

wooden pappy seaman  jersey speed skiff race boat

restored classic wooden Jeresey Speed Skiff

 

A Jersey Speed Skiff in 2013 is either a vintage racer or a APBA modern race boat. What is the difference? To the casual eye the APBA boat has a roll cage and the Vintage or classic does not. #Seabuddy may be old, but not old enough to first-hand tell the full length story of Jersey Speed Skiffs.

Along the jersey shore since the 1800’s, men beach or inlet launched a human-powered (row) boat to ocean and bay fish from. Then a sail rig was added and the popular way to go fishing in New Jersey remained a small boat. Think of a flat bottomed, cedar-wood planked boat using ribs to help define and stiffen the boat shape. Some cousins or early examples of a JSS boat were the Sea Bright Skiff, the Pound Boat, and Utility Skiffs.

In 1922, Harold “Pappy” Seaman built a 16’ long one with a Gray Marine Engine inboard engine. That started the powerboat JSS class idea. His boat went 21 MPH. Fiberglass replaced wood in the 1960s. Bud Bender is the man known for fiberglass Jersey Speed Skiffs. Seabuddy met Bud at a past St. Michaels Antique and Classic Boat Show and Festival in Maryland. Today a skiff can break 80 MPH or more and they use a Chevy V-8 for power.

BTW, many of these early boats fished during the week and raced each other on Sunday. Pappy was from Long Branch, built some 102 skiffs, and the base of the sport seems to have stayed there in Long Branch, but with boat races up and down the east coast all summer long in both Vintage and APBA racing. The next Vintage Event seems to be at the Long Branch Ice Boat and Yacht Club on September 21, 2013 in New Jersey.

My photos are of SUDS, a restored, Pappy Seaman built, 1951 Jersey Speed Skiff. She is a 50 MPH boat. SUDS is powered by a 180 HP, 244cubic inch Fireball Graymarine 6 cylinder racing inboard engine.

She is a planked wood, no plywood anywhere boat. She has White Oak ribs and stem, and White Cedar hull planking, firewall, bulkheads, interior seating’s, and decks. The wood is held together by some 1,752 hand-peened copper rivets and 1,488 slotted screws. The boat was last in the water until the summer of 2012 in 1983. The restoration took 2,312 hours of labor.

#Seabuddy’s photos are from the Pt. Pleasant ACBS Boat Show. Historic photos from the web and other places.

 

Pappy seaman jersey speed skiff 1951 planked wood

Cockpit- note the firewall is planked, not plywood

 

wood restored classic jersey speed skiff

front cockpit

 

old wood from jersey speed skiff wood classic

sample of the old wood

 

Suds race boat pappy seaman

old racing photo of SUDS back in the day

 

jersey speed skiff in a racing turn

This is the way a Jersey Speed Skiff turns